Drive Systems

Academic Staff

Research Focus

Systems, methods and processes in the development, design and validation of electric drive systems and their subsystems, taking into account the interactions in the overall system and the interactions of the system with the environment.

  • Development & validation environments for electric traction motors, energy storage systems, thermal and energy management, and electric drive systems
  • Operation and shifting strategies for electrified drive systems
  • Modeling & simulation in different domains
  • Identification of dynamic phenomena and their causes in the vehicle

Service Offer

We are your partner for problems requiring development and validation of drive systems and their operation strategies:

  • Complete drive train simulation for product validation in early periods of the development process
  • Analysis and optimisation of drivetrain components regarding customer relevant aspects
    • System efficiency
    • Thermal behavior
    • Determination of DMF isolation behaviour
    • Virtual and mixed physical-virtual investigations of the transmission gear rattle sensitivity
    • Torsional and structural vibration
  •  Identification of potentials of drivetrain architectures and topologies taking the customer requirements into account
  •  Development of customer specific validation environments


  • eDriL - eDrive-in-the-Loop test bench (further information is available)
    3-motor test bench with battery simulator and a highly dynamic drive machine as well as two wheel machines to investigate conventional and (partly-) electrified drivetrain concepts in combination with a real time simulation of connected systems.
  • Mini-HiL 
    Model test bench for technological development of new drive system test benches and concepts.
  • Powertrain in the loop test bench - PLP (further information is available)
    Investigation of the whole drive system with the possibility to simulate the connected systems in real time.
  • Power Pack test bench - PPP (further information is available)
    2-motor test bench with two dynamic synchronous machines for the physical integration of drivetrain components into a real time simulation of the virtual connected systems or for component tests
  • Multi Component Test Bench - MCP (further information is available)
    The test bench offers a very high degree of modularity, allowing a large number of arrangements of motors and test specimens.
  • Flexible usable shifting robot and automatic coupling actuation for the automation of gear shifting and coupling processes.


Current theses of the research group can be found here.


Selected Publications

Optimization potentials of the transverse flux machine over the product life cycle
Schmid, M.; Schurr, J.; Brandl, L.; Sauerwald, R.; Knecht, S.; Nöller, M.; Yu, Y.; Parspour, N.; Gauterin, F.; Goll, D.; Reuss, H.-C.; Albers, A.; Bause, K.
2023. Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT). doi:10.5445/IR/1000164338
Design of a Battery Pack with Detachable Cell Contacting for Improved Circular Economy
Müller-Welt, P.; Seiler, T.; Salja, K.; Bause, K.; Albers, A.
2023. Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT). doi:10.5445/IR/1000162147
A Methodology for Application-Specific Concept Definition of Battery Systems Using Pouch Cells Produced in Flexible Format
Müller-Welt, P.; Nowoseltschenko, K.; Bause, K.; Albers, A.
2022. 35th International Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition (EVS35) Oslo, Norway, June 11-15, 2022
Design eines mechanischen Integrationskonzepts für ein modulares Brennstoffzellensystem unter Berücksichtigung von Anforderungen aus verschiedenen Anwendungsszenarien
Nowoseltschenko, K.; Knecht, S.; Bause, K.; Albers, A.
2022. FC3 Fuel Cell Conference Chemnitz. Hrsg.: D. Unwerth, 294–305
Konzeptionierung einer lösbaren Zellkontaktierung für Akku-Packs zur Erhöhung der Demontage- und Recyclingfreundlichkeit
Müller-Welt, P.; Seiler, T.; Bause, K.; Albers, A.
2023. Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT). doi:10.5445/IR/1000157954
Auswirkungen von Wechselwirkungen zwischen Produkt- und Prozessparametern in der Produktion von Batteriezellen : Entwicklung eines Inline-Qualitätssicherungskonzepts mittels Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE)
Zeng, Y.; Müller-Welt, P.; Hunger, S.; Bause, K.; Ott, S.
2022. Tag des Systems Engineering. Hrsg.: W. Koch, 132–136, Gesellschaft für Systems Engineering (GfSE)
Product-Production-CoDesign: An Approach on Integrated Product and Production Engineering Across Generations and Life Cycles
Albers, A.; Lanza, G.; Klippert, M.; Schäfer, L.; Frey, A.; Hellweg, F.; Müller-Welt, P.; Schöck, M.; Krahe, C.; Nowoseltschenko, K.; Rapp, S.
2022. 32nd CIRP Design Conference (CIRP Design 2022) - Design in a changing world. Ed.: N. Anwer, 167–172, Elsevier. doi:10.1016/j.procir.2022.05.231
Automated Optimization of a Cell Assembly Using Format-Flexibly Produced Pouch Cells
Müller-Welt, P.; Nowoseltschenko, K.; Garot, C.; Bause, K.; Albers, A.
2022. 22. Internationales Stuttgarter Symposium – Automobil- und Motorentechnik. Hrsg.: M. Bargende, 569–581, Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-37009-1_40
Lightweight Multi-Material-Design of a Liquid Cooled 18650 Cell Holder
Nöller, M.; Holoch, J.; Pagel, S.; Rombach, J.; Legat, J.; Bonten, C.; Bause, K.
2022. Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT). doi:10.5445/IR/1000144258
Methode zur anwendungsspezifischen Konzeptdefinition eines Batteriesystems unter Verwendung formatflexibel produzierter Pouch-Zellen
Müller-Welt, P.; Nowoseltschenko, K.; Bause, K.; Albers, A.
2022. Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT). doi:10.5445/IR/1000143138
Holistic System Design and Efficient Optimization of a Liquid Cooled Battery Module Through 1D- and 3D-Simulations
Nöller, M.; Renz, R.; Bause, K.
2021. 21. Internationales Stuttgarter Symposium – Automobil- und Motorentechnik. Bd.: 1. Ed.: M. Bargende Internationales Stuttgarter Symposium Automobil- und Motorentechnik (21. : 2021 : Online) [VerfasserIn], 627–636, Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-33466-6_45
Design of a modularized fuel cell system for multiple use in different applications
Nowoseltschenko, K.; Müller-Welt, P.; Bause, K.; Albers, A.
2021. Proceedings of the FISITA World Congress 2021, Prague, 14.-16. September 2021. doi:10.46720/F2021-ADM-139
Development of a Parallel Product-Production Co-design for an Agile Battery Cell Production System
Ruhland, J.; Storz, T.; Kößler, F.; Ebel, A.; Sawodny, J.; Hillenbrand, J.; Gönnheimer, P.; Overbeck, L.; Lanza, G.; Hagen, M.; Tübke, J.; Gandert, J.; Paarmann, S.; Wetzel, T.; Mohacsi, J.; Altvater, A.; Spiegel, S.; Klemens, J.; Scharfer, P.; Schabel, W.; Nowoseltschenko, K.; Müller-Welt, P.; Bause, K.; Albers, A.; Schall, D.; Grün, T.; Hiller, M.; Schmidt, A.; Weber, A.; Biasi, L. de; Ehrenberg, H.; Fleischer, J.
2022. Towards Sustainable Customization: Bridging Smart Products and Manufacturing Systems. Hrsg.: Ann-Louise Andersen, Rasmus Andersen, Thomas Ditlev Brunoe, Maria Stoettrup Schioenning Larsen, Kjeld Nielsen, Alessia Napoleone, Stefan Kjeldgaard, 96–104, Springer International Publishing. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-90700-6_10
Assembly techniques for proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack: A literature review
Song, K.; Wang, Y.; Ding, Y.; Xu, H.; Mueller-Welt, P.; Stuermlinger, T.; Bause, K.; Ehrmann, C.; Weinmann, H. W.; Schaefer, J.; Fleischer, J.; Zhu, K.; Weihard, F.; Trostmann, M.; Schwartze, M.; Albers, A.
2022. Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, 153, Art.-Nr.: 111777. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2021.111777
A Holistic Approach to Improve a Liquid Cooled Battery Module
Nöller, M.; Renz, R.; Eisele, M.; Bause, K.
2020. 2020 AEIT International Conference of Electrical and Electronic Technologies for Automotive (AEIT AUTOMOTIVE), Torino, Italy, Italy, 18-20 Nov. 2020, 1–6, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). doi:10.23919/AEITAUTOMOTIVE50086.2020.9307379
Method for automated topology synthesis and evaluation of hybrid drivetrains [Methode zur automatisierten Topologiesynthese und Bewertung hybrider Antriebsstränge]
Ruoff, S.; Kalt, F.; Bause, K.; Albers, A.
2019. 30th Symposium Design for X, DFX 2019; Jesteburg; Germany; 18 September 2019 through 19 September 2019, 207–216, The Design Society
Methode zur automatisierten Topologiesynthese und Bewertung hybrider Antriebsstränge
Ruoff, S.; Kalt, F.; Bause, K.; Albers, A.
2019. DS 98: Proceedings of the 30th Symposium Design for X (DFX 2019), 18-19 September 2019, Jesteburg, Germany. Ed.: D. Krause, 207–216. doi:10.35199/dfx2019.18
Investigation of the necessity of methodical support of the developer to combine the advantages of two hybrid electric topologies in order to increase the number of realizable functions [in press]
Ruoff, S.; Schwarz, A.-M.; Külz, J.; Bause, K.
2019. 32nd International Electric Vehicle Symposium, Lyon, 19 May to 22 May 2019 (EVS32)
Topology synthesis of hybrid electric vehicle drivetrains in the context of the integrated Product engineering Model
Ruoff, S.
2018. 30th International Electric Vehicle Symposium (EVS 30) : Stuttgart, Germany, 9-11 October 2017. Vol.: 6, 3496–3505, Curran
Evaluation of a validation process for a battery cooling system - direct cooling of cylindrical battery cells -
Eisele, M.; Werner, D.; Ott, S.
2018. 31st International Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition, EVS 2018 and International Electric Vehicle Technology Conference 2018, EVTeC 2018: Kobe, Japan, 30 September - 3 October 2018, Art.-Nr.: 20189192
Evaluation of new hybrid electric vehicle drivetrain topologies - Use case specific synthesis and rating
Ruoff, S.; Busch, M.; Bause, K.
2018. 31st International Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition, EVS 2018 and International Electric Vehicle Technology Conference 2018, EVTeC 2018: Kobe, Japan, 30 September - 3 October 2018, Art.-Nr.: 0189367
Product models in embodiment design: an investigation of challenges and opportunities
Matthiesen, S.; Grauberger, P.; Bremer, F.; Nowoseltschenko, K.
2019. SN Applied Sciences, 1 (9), 1078. doi:10.1007/s42452-019-1115-y
Topologiesynthese und –identifikation für Triebstränge in Abhängigkeit der Verbrennungskraftmaschine
Ruoff, S.; Bause, K.; Ott, S.
2017. 9. Expertenforum Elektrische Fahrzeugantriebe (E-MOTIVE 2017), Hanover, Germany, September 5–6, 2017
Potential in customer-specific manual transmission development through the use of neural networks
Wolter, K.; Ruoff, S.; Lutz, S.; Bause, K.; Ott, S.
2018. 12th International Conference & Expo: Automotive Transmissions, HEV and EV Drives (CTI Symposium USA 2018), May 14-17, 2018, Novi, MI
Investigation of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of clutches using fibre optic sensing technology with high spatial measurement density
Albers, A.; Ott, S.; Kniel, J.; Eisele, M.; Basiewicz, M.
2018. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers / J, 232 (1), 26–35. doi:10.1177/1350650117740011
Modellbildung mit dem C&C²-Ansatz in der Gestaltung - Techniken zur Analyse und Synthese
Matthiesen, S.; Grauberger, P.; Hölz, K.; Nelius, T.; Bremer, F.; Wettstein, A.; Gessinger, A.; Pflegler, B.; Nowoseltschenko, K.; Voß, K.
2018. Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT). doi:10.5445/IR/1000080744
Validation of a Cooling System for Temperature Conditioning of Cylindrical Battery Cells
Eisele, M.; Kohler, K.; Prinz, F.; Ott, S.
2017. 30th International Electric Vehicle Symposium (EVS30), Stuttgart, Germany, 9 - 11 October 2017. Bd.: 2, 933–945, Curran
Topologiesynthese und –identifikation für Triebstränge in Abhängigkeit der Verbrennungskraftmaschine
Ruoff, S.; Bause, K.; Ott, S.
2017. Industrie und Forschung im Zukunftsdialog : E-MOTIVE : 9. Expertenforum Elektrische Fahrzeugantriebe : 5. und 6. September 2017 in Hannover. Hrsg.: A. Raßmann, FVA
Systematische Leistungswandlerauswahl für Hybridantriebsstrangtopologien
Ruoff, S.
2016. Design for X Symposium. Hrsg.: Dieter Krause, Kristin Paetzold, Tutech Verlag
Topology synthesis and identification for conventional drive trains depending on the internal combustion engine
Ruoff, S.; Bause, K.; Ott, S.
2017. Antriebstechnisches Kolloquium ATK 2017 : Tagungsband 17. Antriebstechnisches Kolloquium, Aachen 07.-08.März 2017, Jacobs
Identification of optimal plug-in hybrid powertrain configurations
Reuschl, T.; Albers, A.; Ruoff, S.
2016. 15. Internationales CTI Symposium, Berlin, 6.-7.12.2016
Priorisierung von Aktivitäten zur Konkretisierung von Produkteigenschaften am Beispiel einer Batteriemodulentwicklung
Eisele, M.; Schoch, S.; Puls, R.; Albers, A.; Radimersky, A.
2016. Design for X. Proceedings of the 27th Symposium Design for X, 5.-6. Oktober 2016, Jesteburg. Hrsg.: D. Krause, 219–230, The Design Society
A new approach for higher first gear ratios by increasing the clutch performance using fiber sensing technology
Albers, A.; Kniel, J.; Ott, S.; Lorentz, B.; Eisele, M.
2016. 16th International VDI Congress Drivetrain for Vehicles (Getriebe in Fahrzeugen) : Friedrichshafen, Germany, June 21 - 22, 2016, 469–484, VDI Verlag
Entwicklung von hybriden Antriebssystemen für den Individualverkehr in der Profilregion Karlsruhe
Eisele, M.; Dollinger, A.; Burgert, T.; Müller, F.; Bause, K.; Radimersky, A.; Kraljevic, I.; Ott, S.
Initiales Zielsystem eines Batteriekonfigurators zur Konzeptionierung von Batteriesystemen in mobilen Anwendungen
Eisele, M.; Radimersky, A.; Remmlinger, J.; Ott, S.
2015. Design for X : Beiträge zum 26. DfX Symposium Oktober 2015. Hrsg.: D. Krause, 233–244, Tutech Verlag